Industry 4.0 pocket guide.

New Lanark

The following is an extract from my pocket guide to Industry 4.0. My pocket guide to Industry 4.0 mini-book is given free to everyone who attends one of my Industry 4.0 courses.

 

Introduction

The first three industrial revolutions spanned almost 200 years. The first industrial revolution began in the late 18th century with the introduction of large-scale mechanical looms for fabric production.1 From the 1870s on, the widespread use of electrical energy led to the second industrial revolution.2 The third industrial revolution began in the 1970s when newly developed electronics promoted the computerisation of manufacturing processes. 1,2. The Germanic term Industrie 4.0 was first used in 2011 to describe the fourth industrial revolution, the introduction of Internet technologies into industry. 1

This book is a pocket guide to the fourth industrial revolution, often referred to as Industry 4.0. The fourth industrial revolution is enabled by internet technologies and the emergence of smart machines and products.

Industries that can suitably capitalise and exploit the improved aptitudes presented by Industry 4.0 will profit from a better understanding of their operations, improved responsiveness, lower costs and the capacity to respond to specific customer needs in ways that will transform current business standards.3 Industry 4.0 offers significant financial and social rewards to economies that embrace it.

The first industrial revolution was marked by the establishment of mechanised production works in the late 1700s. The founding of a water-powered cotton spinning mill at New Lanark, Scotland in 1796 is a notable example of the first industrial revolution.4 The New Lanark spinning mill operation became a model example from the first industrial revolution of advancement and improved prosperity through the application of new technology and the adoption of social responsibility 5.

The principal ideas of Industry 4.0 were first published by Kagermann, Lukas and Wahlster in 20116 7. In America, a concept similar to Industry 4.0 has been generated and named the Industrial Internet by General Electric1. The expressions, Industrial Internet and the Internet of Things are often used with a similar meaning to the German expression Industry 4.0.

Indusry is the part of an economy that manufactures material wares by utilising mechanisation and automation. Scientific advances have resulted in changes in industry which today are named “industrial revolutions” 8.

The four industrial revolutions’ are defined as:

  1. The widespread use of mechanisation in industry.    
  2. The widespread use of electrical energy in industry.
  3. The widespread use of computers in industry.                      
  4. Smart machines and products which control their own manufacturing process.

The fourth industrial revolution is enabled by internet technologies and the emergence of smart machines and products. The expression used for this fourth industrial revolution is Industry 4.0, an idiom that is a rumination of software revision labelling.8

The German Industry-Science Research Alliance instigated the strategic enterprise Industry 4.0 in 20119. The phrase Industry 4.0 was first publicly used at the Hanover Trade Fair (Hannover Messe) in 2011 to describe Germany’s technology plan to ready and bolster German industry for future demands on manufacturing.10. Up until 2014 the term Industry 4.0 was not commonly used outside of Germany.8

Industry 1.0 to 3.0.

The first industrial revolution was marked by the establishment of mechanised production works in the late 1700s. The founding of a water-powered cotton spinning mill at New Lanark, Scotland in 1796 is a notable example of the first industrial revolution.4 From the 1870s, the spread of the use of electrical energy in industry contributed to the second industrial revolution. The third industrial revolution, also termed “the digital revolution”, began in the 1970s with the introduction of sophisticated microelectronics in supporting manufacturing systems.2 The the fourth industrial revolution, the introduction of internet technologies into industry began in 2011. Figure 1 is a graphical representation of the four industrials revolutions.

Industry 4.0 map
Figure 1

Figure 1: A summary of the four industrial revolutions.

In America, a concept similar to Industry 4.0 has been generated and named the Industrial Internet by General Electric.1 General Electric (GE) is a principal member of the Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC).11 The IIC promotes the ideas of the smart factory.12 Utilising Industry 4.0 concepts is often described as “smart manufacturing” and results in the term “smart factory.”13

For more information on Industry 4.0 and my pocket guide to Industry 4.0, contact me at Billy@BillySchofield.ie

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